Kitchens are often referred to as the heart of the home and with good reason. Kitchens are the most used … Read More

Enthusiastic birders gathered for a morning bird watching walk led by Marc Cronje at Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate this past … Read More

A group of nine enthusiastic birders joined me for a morning of birding at Likweti Estate, a lovely wildlife residential … Read More

The honey badger (Mellivora capensis) is a mammal that can be found in sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and India. … Read More

The scenic one-hectare stand has an elevated position, providing sweeping views all-round and causing every room in the house to … Read More

Home is not just the place we live, it’s where we learn, play, grow, love, and do life together. … Read More

Seasoned travelers, Barry and Janet Ronald moved from Johannesburg to Hong Kong in 2000. Barry’s position at Cathay Pacific took … Read More

Johan Vermeulen is no stranger to wildlife photography-and-videography. He is a filmmaker specialising in documentaries who just to happens to … Read More

As with every sector in South Africa and globally, the property market was hugely affected by the Covid-19 pandemic over … Read More

Louis, a civil engineer, worked on roads for more than 40 years before the road eventually lead him and his … Read More

Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate invites you to experience carefree bushveld living in the heart of the Lowveld. This unique 765-hectare … Read More

Who doesn’t LOVE a good romantic story? Whether it’s a comedy, a drama, or a tear-jerking storyline inspired by real … Read More

The beginning of a new year often causes a desire for change, not only internally but also in our surroundings. … Read More

The beginning of a new year is a blank canvas, inviting us to dream, to re-evaluate, to reset, to start … Read More

There is a saying that one should aspire to create a life that you don’t need a vacation from, and … Read More

Who doesn’t enjoy a good braai? South Africans have truly embraced outdoor living and the Lowveld’s moderate year-round temperatures make … Read More

Construction of this north, north-east facing home started in November 2021 and is expected to be completed in April / … Read More

Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate is a 765-hectare wildlife residential estate in the Lowveld near White River. Having been mentioned as … Read More

You don’t have to spend a lot of time with Johan and his exuberant wife, Lardine Vermeulen to understand why … Read More

With a view like this, one can easily understand why Likweti was recently named one of the top wildlife residential … Read More

Aquaponics is the combination of aquaculture (the controlled process of cultivating aquatic organisms) and hydroponics (plants which grow in water … Read More

It’s a cloudy day at Likweti wildlife residential estate and the smell of freshly baked rusks fills the beautiful home … Read More

What started out as a “castle in the sky” for Warrick Kernes and his wife, Camilla, developed into a home … Read More

With the summer migrants starting to arrive back in the Lowveld, it’s a great time for birding. It is … Read More

Springtime is the best season to feed and add compost to your garden as this is when there is a … Read More

We are privileged to offer our residents this wonderful opportunity to experience this rare and endangered antelope at Likweti wildlife … Read More

Having a healthy ecosystem at the estate means that there is ample small prey available for these birds of prey. … Read More

Birding with Marc Cronje at Likweti wildlife residential estate – 29 May 2021

As humans it is easy for us to control our body temperature with clothing, food, a nice fire, etc., but … Read More

At Likweti wildlife residential estate a bird’s eye view is no longer reserved for birds only.
Having just … Read More

It was a stunning Lowveld morning as the sun rose over the plains of Likweti with Zebra and Wildebeest standing … Read More

This year’s theme for earth day is “Restore our earth” so we thought of giving you some practical ideas how … Read More

A “zoom town” is referred to as a small community that is growing quickly due to the rise of remote … Read More

The Wildebeest (wild beast) was named by the Dutch, but they are also referred to as Gnus (pronounced “new”). The … Read More

At Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate we are serious about looking after our free roaming animals.
One way of ensuring their wellbeing … Read More

Most of us are familiar with Africa’s Big 5, but are you familiar with the Small five?
These little animals might … Read More

The male weaver bird will go to extreme lengths to produce the perfect home, delicately and expertly woven to perfection. … Read More

Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate is gearing up to launch a brand-new phase of development! This will be the estate’s third … Read More

While 2020 is certainly proving a challenging year for most of us, the contingency to work from home with success … Read More

Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate is undoubtedly one of South Africa’s most unique residential estates. Only 100 hectares of the total … Read More

Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate, there is no place I would rather call home. It’s a wildlife estate just outside of … Read More

A 765-hectare wildlife estate nestled in the heart of the Lowveld just outside of White River, Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate … Read More

Over the past few weeks, we’ve come to realize now more than ever that the value of a lifestyle where … Read More

Investing in property at Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate means buying into a lifestyle unmatched by any other residential estate in … Read More

It’s an exciting time for prospective buyers of Likweti Estate’s latest show house which is well on its way to … Read More

Being on the most eastern edge of their distribution, we are lucky that the Red-throated Wryneck have chosen Likweti Bushveld … Read More

There are few places in South Africa that offer such unique elements of un-spoilt nature and wildlife in one convenient … Read More

The African Hoopoe is a familiar bird mostly due to its funky ‘do, bold stripes, and long curved beak. We’ve … Read More

While it may be hard to take yourself away from Likweti and all that the 765 hectare Estate has to … Read More

The sale of residential stands in the second phase of the much loved Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate, a one-of-a-kind development … Read More

The Ansellia africana orchid, also known as the African Orchid or the Leopard Orchid has been spotted in a tree … Read More

There are few places in South Africa that offer such unique elements of un-spoilt nature and wildlife in one convenient … Read More

For those who live at Likweti Estate, daily living can only be described as magical! With 765 hectares of space … Read More

Move-in ready three bedroom developer show house is now selling at portion 4 Likweti Plains, the second phase of development … Read More

A big horn, a love for all things muddy and a rotund body – it is little wonder how the … Read More

With just on 70% of Likweti Estate’s second phase already sold, there are only a few more stands available for … Read More

When the winter sun sets without a cloud in the sky, the first thing I reach for is my telescope. … Read More

With the warm spring time sun, comes a flash of colour and an interesting mating dance in many suburban gardens. … Read More

Living in a biodiversity haven like Likweti, you’d be forgiven for forgetting that globally we are facing a biodiversity crisis, … Read More

Nestled in the heart of the Lowveld lies Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate. A 765 hectare residential wildlife estate, a cared … Read More

If you’ve been looking for your ultimate family home, now is the perfect time to buy the latest developer show … Read More

It is with great excitement that the developers and marketing team of Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate wish to welcome Century … Read More

For residents at Likweti Estate, getting back in shape has never been simpler, thanks to the range of exercise arenas … Read More

Love them, or hate them, smart phones have opened up the world of digital photography to, well, anyone with one! … Read More

Likweti Bushveld Estate is the best natural playground any child could have, with endless space and a host of natural … Read More

The humble guinea fowl is a common site in the Lowveld bush. With its short legs, rotund body and tendency … Read More

In garden centres and hobby shops across the country a selection of odd looking, oversized bird houses can now be … Read More

An icon of the insect world, ladybirds are instantly recognisable. They are also under threat from one of their own … Read More

Buying a new home can’t get better than this! With construction currently underway, Likweti Estate’s most recent 3 bedroom show … Read More

One can learn a lot from the dung beetle. From going back in order to move forward and how to … Read More

A collective noun refers to a group of people or things. We’ve always been curious about collective nouns for our … Read More

Possibly the most recognised bird in Africa, the African Fish Eagle is known for its very distinct call. Often referred … Read More

Investing in property at Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate means buying into a lifestyle unmatched by any other residential estate in … Read More

When adding a new tree to your garden, there are a number of reasons why you should consider planting indigenous. … Read More

The Tortoise and the Hare is one of the best known children’s stories of all time. A classic tale about … Read More

While out and about at Likweti Estate, whether you’re walking or running, be on the lookout for the Flap-Necked Chameleon. … Read More

Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate’s newest show house is complete and waiting for you to move right in! Perfectly positioned in … Read More

Sometimes the hustle and the bustle of daily life seems like too much, and all you dream about is going … Read More

Situated in Likweti’s second phase of development, Likweti Plains, this house faces North on a spacious one hectare stand. … Read More

Every good guest knows that one should not show up empty handed. It’s always a good idea to take a … Read More

We all know about the Big 5 of Africa, but have you heard of the Shy Five? The shy five … Read More

In the midst of a Lowveld Summer, many a lazy hour is spent lounging around outside. Joyfully, a couple of … Read More

The living is easy in this 308m², three bedroom home set within the grassy plains of the bushveld at … Read More

Bees are a critical part of our food cycle, they pollinate 70 of the around 100 crop species that feed … Read More

We love indoor plants – not only will they make your house look pretty, but they will also help purify … Read More

It’s been said that home is where the heart is, to me, it’s as much about the location as it … Read More

Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate is an eco-sensitive wildlife estate located just outside White River. It’s 765 hectares of unspoilt bushveld … Read More

There are so many things to consider when deciding to build a new home, one can very easily become overwhelmed … Read More

Construction of Likweti Plains latest show house in underway! Renowned for more than just its spacious properties and free roaming … Read More

When you live on a wildlife estate, there will be no shortage of things to do with your family over … Read More

Obviously, the main reason one might consider living on a wildlife estate would be to enjoy the privilege of daily … Read More

The weekend that celebrates all things dad is upon us. Let’s face it, dad is always there when we need … Read More

Located just outside of White River, Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate has become an attractive choice for both local and foreign … Read More

They say the closer we are to nature, the better off we’ll be! This rings true for those who choose … Read More

Mpumalanga is often referred to as the place of the rising sun and is well known for its incredible … Read More

When buying property at Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate, you’ll need to be prepared to build more than just your dream … Read More

Living in the Lowveld is synonymous with the outdoors, we’re fond of the open-air, being outside, and doing things outdoors. … Read More

The first of its kind in South Africa, Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate offers a chance to own a home on … Read More

Stand 13 at Likweti Plains is all about living in the bushveld where space is abundant, your views are made … Read More

One of South Africa’s most unique residential estate’s, Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate located just outside of White River is delighted … Read More

A visit to Likweti Estate is sure to impress, with so much on the go, this bushveld farm just outside … Read More

There’s no doubt that a good lookout point will make you feel like you’re on top of the world! … Read More

Hike up a hill, explore the bushveld, climb a tree, breathe the wild air or gaze at the stars! These … Read More

There is a special place conveniently situated in the heart of the Lowveld, between Nelspruit and White River where residents … Read More

Ideally situated between Nelspruit and White River, Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate has become known as one of South Africa’s most … Read More

A brand new family home is currently under construction on stand 29 at Likweti Hills, the successful first phase of … Read More

Looking for things to do in the Lowveld with your family? At Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate, we’re all about family. … Read More

Positioned in the heart of the Lowveld’s famed macadamia belt, just outside White River, Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate is one … Read More

Mother Nature, she’s in the tapestry of low lying grasslands, rocky outcrops and natural bushveld that make up the magnificent … Read More

Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate’s first phase, Likweti Hills is 80% sold and the developers are proud to announce the launch … Read More

Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate’s 5th Show House – also sold off plan, this house faces north and has natural bushveld … Read More

Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate’s sixth show home is has been sold and once again boasts breath-taking views of the natural … Read More

The first of its kind in South Africa, Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate is a residential estate on both a wildlife … Read More

It has been said that time spent with family is worth every second. At Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate, you can … Read More

South African Designer, Esias Bosch is the founder of EB Architects (Pty) Ltd in White River, Mpumalanga. Having grown up … Read More

With just over 80% of Likweti Estate’s first phase already sold, the estate will soon be  launching an exciting new … Read More

The first of its kind in South Africa, Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate offers a chance to own a bush home … Read More

As this year comes to an end, you might be thinking about a new place to call home in 2017 … Read More

With over 850 species of birds, South Africa can be a daunting prospect for any newbie birder. Where do you … Read More

New house for owner at Stand 35, Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate faces South East and has a very special view … Read More

Another stunning home has just been completed at Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate. Designed by architect Arno Pieters from Plan Eco … Read More

What makes a wildlife estate great? What makes one wildlife estate better than another. Here are 5 things that great … Read More

Lucky owners living at Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate have the luxury of living among some of the most fascinating African … Read More

With almost 50% of the phase one stands now sold at Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate, this eco-sensitive wildlife estate is … Read More

They might not be part of the Big 5, Fat 3 or any other “wildlife collection”, but that doesn’t matter … Read More

Likweti Estate’s third show house was sold before construction was even completed. The owner fell in love with the idea … Read More

It’s time to throw off the winter blankets and embrace springtime in the Lowveld and all the wonders it brings … Read More

Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate’s fourth show home was also sold just after construction had begun. The owners had the opportunity … Read More

Waking up before the sun might send shivers down your spine, but when the reason for this is capturing a … Read More

Can you see yourself in a beautifully designed home, surrounded by nature, with giraffes as your neighbours? In a place … Read More

Located on the Curlews Road, just a short drive from White River, Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate is a unique residential … Read More

Winter brings the urge for snuggling up in a blanket, while sipping on a warm drink and toasting your toes … Read More

Whether you walk or drive through Likweti Estate, what you’ll see is simply picture perfect! From panoramic views of natural … Read More

Nothing stimulates the senses quite like nature. Whether it is the feel of textured bark, the smell of freshly cut … Read More

Whether you call it one or not, most of us have a ‘bucket list’ of some sort! A tick list … Read More

While it may be hard to take yourself away from Likweti and all that the 765 hectare Estate has to … Read More

Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate is fast becoming one of the Lowveld’s most sought after residential wildlife estates. With 765 ha … Read More

Located in one of the most beautiful areas of the Lowveld and only a short drive away from White River … Read More

When you arrive home, all your stress has just disappeared – this is how Bart and Peggy Roef, residents at … Read More

According to Greg Bisaro and Ivan Parnell, Master Agent’s at Chas Everitt International Property Group, Likweti Estate is currently one … Read More

Wishing your life away in anticipation of the next vacation is something we can all be guilty of. But with … Read More

A beautiful African Pygmy-Kingfisher recently visited Likweti Lodge when he accidentally flew into a window.

Jaco Hattingh of Likweti Lodge was … Read More

Local bird expert, Peter Lawson shares his most recent, very exciting bird watching experience with us.

Shortly after sunrise on a beautiful … Read More

Living in the Lowveld means we are surrounded by nature. Whether it is the misty mountains, rolling grasslands or wild … Read More

The frantic pace of modern world means most of us are frazzled by the end of the working week. Thankfully … Read More

Local bird expert, Peter Lawson shares his most recent, very exciting bird watching experience with us.

I was at the entrance gate … Read More

When it comes to choosing the perfect location for your forever home don’t just listen to the people selling the … Read More

The 24th of September marks Heritage Day, a day where we celebrate the diverse cultures that make up our ‘Rainbow … Read More

Likweti Lodge has a very confiding  pair of Mocking Cliff-Chats (Thamnolaea cinnamomeiventris)  that have taken up residence.

As the name implies, these … Read More

A Scaly-throated Honeyguide was recently spotted as a new bird for the Likweti bird list in September, 2015. Local bird expert, Peter … Read More

Stand 39 at Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate is a central stand with arguably one of the best views of the … Read More

Winter in the Lowveld is relatively mild. Even so, the long dark evenings, cold mornings and the unbearable dust make … Read More

It’s the freedom of space offered by the 360 degree panoramic views of unspoilt bushveld which make Likweti Bushveld Farm … Read More

An Orange-breasted Waxbill was recently spotted as a new bird for the Likweti bird list in August, 2015. Local bird … Read More

South Africa is facing a water crisis. Already a water poor country, by 2025 demand for water is set to … Read More

As the sun goes down and the antelope retreat into the bush, a new cast of characters claim Likweti Bushveld … Read More

With over 24,000 species of indigenous plants in South Africa, the big question is why would anyone plant an exotic? … Read More

It’s not favouritism. Nor is it bragging. The Lowveld is one of the most beautiful places in South Africa. That’s … Read More

Perfectly situated amidst the triangle of Mbombela, White River and Kruger Mpumalanga International Airport (KMIA), Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate has … Read More

It is the diverse ecosystems found within the Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate that make it a biodiversity hotspot. The rocky … Read More

The Greater Honeyguide was recently spotted as a new bird for the Likweti bird list in June, 2015. Local bird … Read More

To live in a wildlife estate, surrounded by natural bushveld, amongst free roaming game normally costs a small fortune in … Read More

Mpumalanga is home to some 75 species of snakes, many of which are found at Likweti Estate occasionally, but luckily … Read More

Described as an eco-sensitive residential estate, Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate has a discerning awareness for nurturing the natural environment and … Read More

By combining the best elements of luxury estate living with a bushveld farm lifestyle, Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate has created … Read More

The African paradise-flycatcher couple, which is commonly found at Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate, is truly a magnificent example of a … Read More

Load Shedding in the Lowveld, here’s our list of things you can do while the lights are out:
1. Experiment with … Read More

Our local bird expert, Peter Lawson shares a lovely story from his most recent bird watching trip at Likweti Bushveld … Read More

With Easter weekend just around the corner shops are filled with Easter eggs and furry little Easter bunnies. Here at … Read More

The first show house built at Likweti Estate, this modern, 4 bedroom house has breath-taking panoramic views of the Bushveld.
16 … Read More

The Lowveld truly has one of the best climates in the country and is as close to an endless summer … Read More

Likweti Estate’s birding list is growing rapidly and has just fewer than 200 species positively identified to date. According to … Read More

Many people dream of growing their own vegetables but very often just don’t know how to get started. Here are … Read More

Whether you deal with load shedding on a daily basis in South Africa or you just aim to be a … Read More

1. It just feels right
Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate is an eco-sensitive estate that takes pride in preserving the natural environment. … Read More

This past year has been a big one in the books for Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate and apart from securing … Read More

The most recent sighting of the Black Heron at Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate brings our total number of bird species … Read More

Most people around the world are familiar with the coveted Big 5 of Africa. So glamorous are these majestic creatures … Read More

Outdoor adventures and quality time spent together in nature are the things memories are made of. The excitement of growing … Read More

An African Crowned Eagle breeding pair have successfully hatched a chick at Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate in October this year … Read More

Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate is excited to announce its innovative new concept in estate management that will alleviate the burden … Read More

One lucky family will soon be able to enjoy living their dream in ultimate luxury on a magnificent hill that … Read More

Getting up close and personal with nature and the good old outdoors is what the most recent excursion was all … Read More

Heritage Day falls on a Wednesday this year (2014) and is a South African public holiday that celebrates our country’s … Read More

Tree expert Dyk Zeeman spent some time at Likweti to get to know the enormous diversity there is to be … Read More

Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate is delighted to announce the sighting of Black-winged Stilts on the property. This new specie brings … Read More

With spring on our doorstep the natural beauty of Likweti is ready to explode in all its splendour. As many … Read More

17 August 2014

Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate is an excellent buy because of its location. Situated between the triangle of Mbombela … Read More

Says Peter Lawson

“After all the regular birding I have done at Likweti since November, 2013 I would not have expected … Read More

African Jacana is new for the Likweti bird list.   This lovely waterbird generally favours water lilies that it can walk … Read More

Even though Lowveld winters are relatively mild, spring’s explosion of new life still surprises one. Every dormant thing suddenly greets … Read More

We’re on show by appointment the whole of Innibos.

Call Marion and her Team at Century 21 to view the Estate … Read More

The days of untroubled childhood should not be the stuff of distant memory. Modern social decline often robs children of … Read More

The site of the new house is high on a hill overlooking the natural bushveld landscape of Likweti.  Consisting of 400 sq … Read More

At the beginning of the month Peter Lawson was at Likweti early one morning.  With not a single cloud in the … Read More

Giraffe are fascinating animals. You might be surprised by some of these very interesting facts about Giraffe.
 

Latin Name

Giraffa Camelopardalis

Weight (Female)

800 … Read More

In the past 15 years, Nelspruit has gone from a quiet country town to a booming young city. This certainly … Read More

No, not the Big Five! The UGLY five!

The members of this exclusive club are the hyena, the wildebeest, the vulture, … Read More

By April most migrant birds have left South Africa to spend their summer in warmer climates, but this year a … Read More

For all birders that would love to know “which bird that is” – visit www.brizabirdguide.co.za  for this wonderful SAPPI Birds … Read More

On a recent visit to Likweti,  Peter sent us a really exciting email and we are very enthralled about his … Read More

Click on the image below to find out how we’re building an eco-friendly future at Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate.

While walking along listing birds for Likweti , Peter Lawson disturbed a herd of zebra and some giraffe took fright and ran off. While watching … Read More

Click on the image below to find out more about the people and philosohpy behind Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate.

While birdwatching on Likweti shortly before dusk recently, Peter Lawson noted a bird in silhouette on a power line. By the … Read More

Likweti are pleased to announce one of the first architectural plans from well known Tom Hattingh to be used as … Read More

Dyk Zeeman, a Tertiary Dendrologist of Mpumalanga, was approached to verify the indigenous tree species, which was listed on a … Read More

Click on the image below for a very tempting taste of the lodge at Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate.

Visit Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate this weekend and select your one hectare stand with some of the most stunning views … Read More

DONT FORGET WE ARE ON SHOW ALL WEEKEND – SEE YOU THERE !

The Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate agents were also ON SHOW at Curro at the weekend.  Great interest was shown in … Read More

Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate sponsored the annual “ Independent Schools Athletics Meeting” on Saturday 22 February 2014 which was held … Read More

… looking to visit Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate over the weekend, we make it easy for you – download map … Read More

 

Just as the sun was sinking Peter  parked on a gravel track  hoping to hear some nocturnal birds for the … Read More

Peter Lawson visited Likweti on 12 February just after sunrise to spend a full day and night adding to our growing bird list.

Normally stopping … Read More

Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate are sponsoring the very first primary school  ‘Independent School Athletics’ day  at Curro School, Nelspruit.

This event … Read More

Click on the image below to find out more about the inspiring options that Liweti Bushveld Farm Estate offers.

Likweti has appointed Fine & Country White River – Dalene Minnaar – as well as Charlotte Snyman from Kellaprince Properties … Read More

Peter Lawson visited Likweti earlier this month having sighted  a pair of Red Headed Weavers – male and female at … Read More

Click on the image below to find out how Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate offers you the best of both worlds.

Click on the image below to read all about Ampie and Jeanette Pretorius’ lovely home at Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate

Happy New Year everyone and a great sighting from Peter Lawson to bring in the New Year !

Peter  started the … Read More

The bird count for Likweti has only just started but some ‘specials’ have been encountered. No doubt there will be … Read More

December has been somewhat wet and this has had the effect of creating marshy conditions in a number of areas … Read More

If you didn’t catch the article about Likweti Bushveld Farm Estate in the December edition of Lowveld Living, you can … Read More

 The African Finfoot is one of the most sought-after birds by all birders, both by South Africans and visitors from overseas. … Read More

This just in from Peter Lawson  ….

“Cisticolas are a large family of little brown jobs (LBJs), difficult to identify for … Read More

We’re proud to announce that renowned expert Peter Lawson has been appointed at Likweti to start our bird count verification. … Read More

Every child deserves to smile and live a life of hope.
Every three minutes a child is born with a cleft. … Read More

Click here to book your year-end function at Likweti Lodge.

From 16 to 23 November, Likweti Lodge will be accommodating Operation Smile. This international children’s medical charity provides safe, effective reconstructive surgery and related … Read More